Dating abbreviations meanings
When the spelled-out version first appears in the narrative of the sentence, put the abbreviation in parentheses after it: If your reference has a group author, the name of the group can sometimes be abbreviated—for example, American Psychological Association can be abbreviated to APA.
You are not obligated to abbreviate the name of a group author, but you can if the abbreviation would help avoid cumbersome repetition and will appear more than three times in the paper.
For example, you might cite a test or measure that has an abbreviation and then provide its citation (for a common case, here is how to cite the ). Writing out the full term in the title will ensure potential readers know exactly what you mean, and if your article is formally published, it will ensure it is accurately indexed.
If the spelled-out version of the term appears in the narrative for the first time, put the abbreviation and the author–date citation in parentheses after it, separated by a semicolon. There is no official guidance on whether to use abbreviations in the running head.
Starting at midnight, hours are numbered from 0 to 24, removing the need for designations like am and pm.
For example, at , 23 hours have passed since the beginning of the current day.
Although the precise moment of noon falls in neither category, the hour succeeding it, from to , is clearly noon.
Your friend could ask you to be at the airport at am on April 13 or, if the following midnight is meant, at pm on April 13. Here, refers to midnight at the beginning of the day while is midnight at the end of the day.
A 24-hour clock, sometimes referred to as military time, states the time according to the number of hours that have passed since midnight.
If you have several references by the same group author, you only need to abbreviate the name once (see here for how to handle references with the same author and date).
Note that if two different groups would abbreviate to the same form (e.g., both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association abbreviate to APA), you cannot use the abbreviation in your paper—instead you must spell out the term every time to avoid ambiguity.